About Sistan and Baluchestan province and Hamoun wetland

About Sistan and Baluchestan province 

Sistan and Baluchestan province with a total area of ​​18.7 million hectares and a population of 2.5 million people, is the second-largest province in the country. The province shares water resources in the east with Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Sistan plain is comprised of 5 counties of ZabolZahakHamounHelmand and Nimruz with a total population of more than 400 thousand people, and has an area of ​​about 15197 square kilometers and an average altitude of 478 meters above sea level. The climate of the region is hot and dry with continuous winds, especially “120-day winds” that continue from May to September.

Position of Hamoun Lakes in Iran and Afghanistan UNEP 2006

About Hamoun Wetland

Hamoun wetland consists of lakes, ponds and swamps, with surfaces that are constantly fluctuating and changing. The area of Hamoun in terms of water intake is about 5700 square kilometers, of which 3820 square kilometers fall within the Iranian territory. The depth range of Hamoun is between 1 to 7 meters. In the Sistan region, there are three Hamouns named Pouzak, Saberi and Helmand that are fed separately by separate water sources but join together during maximum water intake.

Hamoun Wetlands are located in a very arid region and are completely dependent on the water resources of the Helmand River in Afghanistan.

Hamoun Wetland from 1998 to 2020

Main reasons for environmental challenges in the region:

  1. Decrease in precipitation,
  2. Water mismanagement in the Sistan basin,
  3. Climate change.

Consequences of environmental challenges in the region:

  1. Threats against wetland ecosystems (plant and animal species),
  2. Serious threat to the livelihood of the residents of the region due to the fluctuation of the river water and the drying of the wetland, as well as the decrease in rainfall,
  3. Reduction of water resources allocated to the environment and the occurrence of widespread and adverse environmental consequences such as salinization, sandstorms, outbreaks of microbial diseases, desertification, destruction of wetlands and loss of biodiversity in the region,
  4. Zabul is included in the list of the most polluted cities in the world from the perspective of the World Health Organization (WHO),
  5. Negative effects on economic activities, employment and achieving sustainable livelihood.